On April 14, 1988, Captain Paul Rinn was the commanding officer of the USS Samuel B. Roberts when it struck a mine in the Persian Gulf. The resulting explosion tore a 21-foot hole in the side of the frigate. Almost immediately, the ship began taking on water, and multiple fires broke out. Naval protocol for this situation was clear: Put out the fires first, then worry about patching the hull. But after just a few minutes of fire-fighting, Rinn realized he would need to step outside of protocol or the ship would sink before the fires were out. He immediately directed the crew to begin patching the hull with any available materials, including clothing and bed sheets. Thanks to Rinn’s judgment, the ship was saved and no lives were lost.
About twenty years later, while flying out of LaGuardia Airport, Captain Chesley Sullenberger faced a similar situation when his plane lost power in both engines. While a later analysis indicated that Sullenberger could have made it back to the airport, he understood the danger of attempting a landing in such a densely-populated area. So he opted for a seemingly risky water landing on the Hudson River. As you probably know, the plane landed safely, and again no lives were lost.
The dangers of making decisions under stress are well understood, which is why Captain Rinn and Captain Sullenberger are both lauded as heroes. In both cases, there was no ready playbook. Instead, they combined equal doses of skill, judgment and intuition to make the miraculous possible. That’s why they’re heroes. But what can ordinary people learn from them? I hesitate to compare financial decision-making to the life-and-death decisions faced by these two men. But it’s worth exploring ways we can similarly combine logic and intuition to manage the financial stress that many of us may be feeling today.
While there is no magic bullet, what I recommend is to start with an awareness of what stress does to us. You’ll then be in a better position to use it to your advantage, rather than letting it control you. Below are three aspects of stress that have bearing on financial decision-making:
Information. A key characteristic of any stressful situation is that information is incomplete, inaccurate or simply unavailable. That is absolutely the case today. Of course, the health impact of the coronavirus is still an open question. And beyond that, we don’t know what the result will be for financial markets. Unfortunately, that doesn’t stop people from offering their own theories, opinions, anecdotes and predictions. Today, even some people with seeming expertise are employing alarmist language. This morning, for example, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund called this “humanity’s darkest hour.”
How can you turn this to your advantage? My advice is to think in terms of half steps. If you are considering actions such as taking risk out of your portfolio, or maybe adding it, rebalancing, making gifts for estate planning or completing a Roth conversion, these are all good ideas, but don’t jump in with both feet. Instead, take a partial step. That will give you the peace of mind that you have taken some action, but it also leaves your options open for later, when you have more and better information.
That’s my advice at a practical level. In addition, I would be careful about letting other people tell you how to think or feel. If you’re hearing people use phrases like “Armageddon” or “humanity’s darkest hour,” I would take a step back, sharpen your pencil and simply evaluate how the current situation is impacting you. Everyone is in a different position, so you shouldn’t let other people’s views or emotions influence your decisions.
Time. If you’ve ever taken a standardized test, you know that limited time also induces stress. Since financial markets move quickly, and no one knows whether the next move will be up or down, you may feel the urgency to take some action.
How can you turn this to your advantage? My advice: Slow down. Don’t feel rushed to action. Instead, make a plan. You don’t know what will happen, but it’s fairly easy to imagine the full range of scenarios. Even if it is just for your own benefit, I would write out a plan for each scenario. That way, if the market rises 20%, or it falls 20%, or your pay is cut, or any other scenario develops, you’ll have a plan. This, in my view, is the best way to combat time urgency. When you’ve developed your plans in advance, it’s far easier to pull that playbook off the shelf than it is to develop it on the fly.
Focus. Psychologists have found that the human mind tends to narrow its focus when stress levels increase. This makes sense. When the fight-or-flight instinct kicks in, our minds focus on the danger at hand, and only at the danger at hand. In many ways, this is a good thing. In academic experiments, researchers have found that stress-induced focus sometimes helps people make better decisions. We focus on what really matters and worry less about the details.
But there is a downside to this focus. Research has also found that, in times of stress, people fail to consider the full range of potential solutions. This makes sense: It’s quicker and easier to take some action—any action—than it is to sit and research alternatives. But this isn’t optimal.
How can you turn this to your advantage? Again, sharpen your pencil. Use focus to your advantage to translate any financial stress you are feeling into specific questions. Then, as you search for answers, do everything you can to widen your field of view. As noted above, slow down. Avoid dramatic decisions. Instead, read, talk and consult with friends, family members, colleagues—whoever you trust. Try to gather a range of ideas and opinions. While every financial crisis is different, the toolbox of solutions doesn’t change a whole lot. Make sure you consider all of these tools before taking any action.
This is especially important during today’s situation because isolation is working against us. Irrational fears build on themselves if we don’t have an opportunity to talk them through with others. So now, more than ever, be sure to pick up the phone, or Zoom.